Use heart rate to run correctly (the relationship between heart rate and running and its application)

First of all, it is for reference only, just to provide an application of heart rate in running, and the influence and reaction of heart rate on people, just to provide a reference. The most important thing in exercise is to get moving, stick to it and make yourself healthy and comfortable, not to achieve a certain goal. This article only provides a reference, and everyone’s body varies from person to person.

1 Relationship between heart rate and running

During running, heart rate reflects the intensity, nature, energy metabolism and oxygen consumption, lactic acid accumulation, fatigue and recovery of the body and so on. Therefore, we can use heart rate as the measurement standard of running, so as to control the intensity, density and quantity of running, make running exercise scientific and achieve the best results.

Now, the corresponding exercise intensity, exercise intensity classification, energy metabolism, oxygen consumption, blood lactic acid content, running attributes and applications, and self-feeling during running, which are reflected by the changes of heart rate, are shown in the table.

From Table 1, we can see that the heart rate of the exerciser has other corresponding indexes, and all the indexes change with the change of heart rate. The exerciser can find out the target heart rate of running exercise from the table according to the purpose and nature of his own exercise, then carry out running exercise according to the selected target heart rate range, and reasonably adjust and control the intensity, density and amount of running according to the heart rate change after exercise, so as to achieve the expected effect of exercise.

2 Use heart rate science to guide running

The change of running center rate is proportional to the change of running speed, that is, slow running speed and slow heart rate, fast running speed and fast heart rate. Usually, the heart rate of 120-130 beats //min indicates that the runner has recovered psychologically and can start the next run. In order to reduce lactic acid accumulation during high-intensity exercises, you must wait until your heart rate drops to 120 beats /min before starting the next maximum run. When the heart rate is 170-180 beats /min, the next run can be started as long as the heart rate drops to 130 beats /min, which can develop aerobic and anaerobic metabolism ability more effectively and make the exerciser adapt to the hardship of speed and speed endurance training physically and psychologically.

3 the effect of heart rate interval on the body

When the heart rate is between 120 beats/min and 140 beats/min, the oxygen uptake is the largest. When the heart rate reaches 140 beats/min, the heart rate increases again, and the oxygen uptake decreases. The higher the heart rate, the less the oxygen uptake.

The heart rate is between 120 beats /min and 150 beats/min, which is the effective value range of running. When the heart rate is below 120 beats /min, the body’s blood pressure, blood composition, urine protein and ECG indexes have no obvious changes, so the fitness value is not great and the exercise effect is not obvious.

When the heart rate is between 120 beats /min and 180 beats/min, the cardiac stroke output is large, among which the heart rate of 150 beats/min is the largest and the exercise effect is the best. When the heart rate is lower than 120 beats /min or higher than 180 beats/min, the stroke output decreases.

Running with a heart rate of 130 beats /min is the best heart rate for weight loss exercise.

Continuous running, repeated running and intermittent running with a heart rate of 140 beats /min can improve the maximum oxygen consumption and aerobic metabolism, but it takes 5-15 minutes to achieve the purpose of strengthening physical fitness.

Running with a heart rate between 140 beats/min and 160 beats/min is a moderate exercise intensity running, which is the ideal speed running with the most remarkable effect of improving cardiopulmonary function.

Running with a heart rate of 150-180 beats //min can improve anaerobic metabolism and develop aerobic metabolism, so it can effectively improve the functions of cardiovascular system and respiratory system.

The heart rate of 170 beats /min-180 beats/min is the index heart rate of interval running at different distances, which mainly improves the dirty blood volume and contributes to the improvement and development of cardiopulmonary function.

Running with a heart rate of more than 180 beats /min is to maximize the working ability under the condition of insufficient oxygen supply, mainly to develop the anaerobic metabolism ability of adenosine triphosphate and creatine phosphate.

4 Relationship between heart rate and running amount

The increase or decrease of running amount in the whole exercise process should be adjusted according to the situation that the heart rate returns to normal after running. If the measured heart rate increases only 15 times or less 10 minutes after running, the running amount should be increased appropriately.

Before getting up in the morning, measure your heart rate as a reference heart rate, and then measure it once every morning. If the measured heart rate is roughly equal to the reference heart rate, it means that the amount of exercise is appropriate. If it suddenly increases for more than 8 times, it means that the amount of exercise is too large, and you must appropriately reduce the running or temporarily stop running.

5 Various heart rate measurements and applications
1. Resting Heart Rate
Normal people’s heart rate is generally between 70 and 90/min. After long-term endurance exercise training (such as long-distance running), the function of the heart is improved, so under the same intensity of training or activity, the output of each beating of the heart is greater than that before training, and the heart rate naturally decreases. Trained endurance athletes usually have a heart rate below 50 to 60/min. Therefore, the resting heart rate decreases with the training time, which shows that the training plan is effective. On the other hand, if the resting heart rate suddenly rises, there is a great chance that it is due to fatigue or overtraining.

The best time to measure resting heart rate is before getting up early in the morning, otherwise it will be measured at least after sitting for 5 minutes, otherwise the result will be high. When measuring, you can press your hand on the carotid artery or the radial artery near your wrist, and measure the pulse within one minute.

2. Maximal Heart Rate
  The direct way to measure the highest heart rate is to measure the heart rate at that time by ECG instrument under the maximum intensity exercise. However, the following formula can also be used to reasonably calculate the maximum heart rate of men and women.
Maximum heart rate = 220-age
For example, a 20-year-old person’s highest heart rate is estimated as:
220-20 = 200 times/minute

3 Heart rate during exercise
There is no need to talk about methods when you have a heart rate table.

4 target heart rate
In a training class, one of the most important choices is to decide the intensity of training. According to different training purposes, such as promoting health, improving physical fitness, weight control or improving sports performance, the training intensity in the exercise prescription will be more or less different.

One of the indicators that can best reflect the intensity of training is the heart rate. The data of some research results show that there is a linear relationship between oxygen uptake and heart rate in a wide numerical range, and this linear relationship is only broken when the training intensity is very low and high. Scholars who have done research in this field generally agree.
1. 70% of the highest heart rate (HRmax) = 60% of the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max),
2. 85% of the highest heart rate (HRmax) = 80% of the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max).

Because the higher the intensity of training, the higher the heart rate (to a great extent), so the target heart rate (THR) can be used to determine the intensity of a training class. There are generally two methods to determine the target heart rate during training:
A. Maximal Heart Rate Method
Under the maximum heart rate method, the target heart rate is calculated only by the maximum heart rate. For example, if an athlete with a maximum heart rate of 200 beats/min wants to have a training session with an intensity of 75%, the target heart rate is calculated as follows:
THR75%= 0.75 x 200 times/minute = 150 times/minute.

B. "Heart Rate Reserve Method"
Heart rate reserve method was developed by Karvonen(1957), so it is also called Karvonen method. First, the heart rate reserve (HRR) should be calculated by the following formula.
HRR = HRmax – HRrest
If the athlete’s resting heart rate (HRrest) is 65 beats/min and the highest heart rate is 200 beats/min, then
= (200-65) times/minute
= 135 times/minute
Then, if you want to have a training class with an intensity of 75%, the target heart rate is calculated as follows:
= 75% x HRR + HRrest
= [(0.75 x 135)+65] times/minute
= 166 times/minute
In the same way, if the same athlete wants to have a training class with 90% intensity, the target heart rate is calculated as follows:
= 90% x HRR + HRrest
= [(0.9 x 135)+65] times/minute
= 187 times/minute

However, this method is gradually eliminated because of its excessive intensity, and the previous method is generally adopted.